Grammar Review مراجعة القواعد
Types of sentences
1. Nominal الجملة الاسمية
• الجملة الاسمية is a sentence that begins with a noun إسم or pronoun ضمير
Examples: احمد يسكن في الدار البيضاء انا من الولايات المتحدى الامريكب
• الجملة الاسمية has two parts:
المبتدا or the subject
ا الخبر or the predicate: new information such as what is related to the subject. It can be a noun, adjective, verb, prepositional phrase … etc. Note that الخبر tends to be indefinite when it is a noun or an adjective; This helps to identify where the sentence break between the two parts.
يسكن في الدار البيضاء احمد من الولايات المتحدى الامريكب انا
الخبر المبتدا ا الخبر المبتدا
• Nouns and adjectives in both المبتدا and الخبر must agree in gender (both مذكر or both مؤنث) and number (both مفرد and both جمع).
محمد استاد امينة استادة محمد وامينة اساتدة
الجملة الاسمية: المقدم الخبر Fronted Predicate
• You have seen both عند and ل used to indicate possession. لي عمة اسمها فاطمة ،عندي دراجة نارية
• These words are used to express a verbal concept (to have) but are not themselves verbs. Grammatically, they are prepositional phrases and the sentences in which they occur are جمل اسمية.
• The order of المبتدا و الخبر is reversed and الخبرis fronted.
• This word order must be maintained because an Arabic sentence may not begin with an indefinite noun.
There; there is/are هناك
• In Arabic, the reversed جمل اسمية are often used to express the concept to have and the English construction there is/there are. الخبر usually consists of a prepositional phrase (ل, عند, مع, في) or the word هناك there, as the following table illustrates:
2. الجملة الفعلية
• In addition to الجملة الاسمية Arabic has another sentence pattern الجملة الفعلية, which is a sentence that begins with a verb. The subject of this verb is either contained in the verb itself or is expressed as a noun following the verb.
هم) يكتبون رسائل الى اصدقائهم) the subject in this sentence is contained in the verb ون with the implied هم.
يعمل والدي في القطاع السياحي the subject (والدي) in this sentence follows the verb.
• Most sentences can be expressed either as a جملة اسمية or as جملة فعلية. The main difference is the word order, which does not affect the basic meaning of the sentence.
الجملة الفعلية: Subject agreement
We said above that the subject can be either contained in the verb or follow it. Study this table.
The verb follows he subject
What do you notice?
The verbs in these sentences are singular even though the subjects are plural. This is because whenever a verb precedes its subject and a subject is a separate noun (not part of the verb), the verb must always be singular. It must agree with the subject in gender. مذكر و مؤنث.